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Resilience is conceptualized as a dynamic developmental process that involves drawing on health-enhancing psychological, social, cultural, and physical resources to achieve positive outcomes despite adversity (Masten, 2001; Ungar, 2008).

Boris Cyrulnik has formulated a metaphor that highlights the dynamic and procedural nature of this approach:  
When a grain of send gets into an oyster and it is so irritating that, in order to defend itself, the oyster has to secrete a nacreous substance, the defensive reaction produces a material that is hard, shiny and precious.
(Cyrulnik, 1999)

Investigating resilience means exploring the nature of the transformative process from the grain of sand to the precious pearl that occurs in individuals, families and communities exposed to adverse events.  
RiRes studies and researches are aimed at exploring in each operational context how the transformative process is connoted from the grain (traumatic event / adverse experiences) into pearl (positive adaptation outcome), and to identify the factors that make it up in terms of " risk "and" protection ". This conceptualization goes beyond “trauma repair” by focusing on the resilience resources deployed by the actors to cope with it.
RiRes adopts a socio-ecological approach to resilience, which is built on the following assumptions:

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